Server Securing

Securing Your Server

Below given are some of the steps that can be used to secure your server.

Disable identification output for Apache

To disable the version output for proftp, SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type: pico /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Scroll (way) down and change the following line to

ServerSignature Off

Restart Apache

At command prompt type: /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart

These are applications that will help to secure your server.

Install and run chkrootkit

To install chrootkit, SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type: cd /root/

At command prompt type: wget ftp://ftp.pangeia.com.br/pub/seg/pac/chkrootkit.tar.gz

At command prompt type: tar xvzf chkrootkit.tar.gz

At command prompt type: cd chkrootkit-0.44

At command prompt type: make sense

To run chkrootkit

At command prompt type: /root/chkrootkit-0.44/chkrootkit

Make sure you run it on a regular basis, perhaps including it in a cron job.

Install APF Firewall

To install APF, SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type: cd /root/

At command prompt type: wget http://www.rfxnetworks.com/downloads/apf-current.tar.gz

At command prompt type: tar -xvzf apf-current.tar.gz

At command prompt type: rm -f apf-current.tar.gz

At command prompt type: cd apf-0.9.4-6

At command prompt type: sh ./install.sh

After APF has been installed, you need to edit the configuration file.

At command prompt type: cd /etc/apf

At command prompt type: pico -w conf.apf

Scroll down and find

USE_DS=”0″

change it to

USE_DS=”1″

Now scroll down and configure the Ports. The following ports are required for CPanel:

Code:

Common ingress (inbound) TCP ports
IG_TCP_CPORTS=”21,22,25,53,80,110,143,465,953,993,995,2082,2083,2084,2086,2087,2095,2096,3306,6666,7786,3000_3500″

Note: If you changed the port for SSH, be sure to include that port and remove port 22.

—–
21 FTP (TCP)
22 SSH (TCP)
25 SMTP (TCP)
53 DNS – Domain Name Server (TCP)
80 HTTP (TCP)
110 POP3 (TCP)
143 IMAP (TCP)
443 HTTPS (TCP)
465 sSMTP (TCP)
953 ??BIND??
993 IMAP4 protocol over TLS/SSL (TCP)
995 POP3 protocol over TLS/SSL (was spop3) (TCP)
2082 CPANEL (http://sitename.com:2082) (TCP)
2083 CPANEL SSL (https://sitename.com:2083) (TCP)
2084 entropychat server (disable from CPANEL service manager if not used) (TCP)
2086 WHM (http://sitename.com:2086) (TCP)
2087 WHM SSL (https://sitename.com:2087) (TCP)
2095 WebMail (http://sitename.com:2095) (TCP)
2096 WebMail SSL (https://sitename.com:2096)
3306 mySQL remote access (TCP)
6666 Melange chat Server (disable from CPANEL service manager if not used) (TCP)
7786 Interchange (TCP)
3000_3500
—–
5100 for ASP,
8080 and 8443 for JSP if you use them.
—–

Code:

Common ingress (inbound) UDP ports
IG_UDP_CPORTS=”53,6277

—–
53 DNS – Domain Name Server
6277 SpamAssassin / DCC (email scanning)
—–

Code:

Common ICMP (inbound) types
IG_ICMP_TYPES=”3,5,11,0,30,8″

—–
0 Echo Reply
3 Destination Unreachable
5 Destination Unreachable
8 Echo
11 Time Exceeded
30 Traceroute
—–

Code:

Common egress (outbound) TCP ports
EG_TCP_CPORTS=”21,25,37,53,80,110,113,#123,443,43,873,953,2089,2703,3306″

—–
21 FTP
25 SMTP
37 Required for CPANEL Licensing
53 DNS – Domain Name Server
80 HTTP
110 POP3 (if you have scripts that need to retrieve email via POP, e.g. HelpDesk)
113 Authentication Protocol (AUTH)
123 NTP (Network Time)
443 HTTPS
43 WHOIS
873 rsync (CPanel updates)
953 BIND ??
2089 Required for CPANEL Licensing
2703 Razor (email scanning)
3306 mySQL remote access
—–

Code:

Common egress (outbound) UDP ports
EG_UDP_CPORTS=”20,21,53,873,953,6277″

—–
20 ftp-data
21 FTP
53 DNS – Domain Name Server
873 rsync
953 BIND ??
6277 SpamAssassin / DCC (email scanning)
—–

Code:

Common ICMP (outbound) types
EG_ICMP_TYPES=”all”

Save the changes then exit.

To start APF

At command prompt type: /usr/local/sbin/apf -s

APF commands are:

-s start
-r restart
-f flush – stop
-l list
-st status
-a HOST allow HOST
-d HOST deny HOST

Log out of SSH and then login again.

After you are sure everything is working fine, change the DEV option

At command prompt type: cd /etc/apf

At command prompt type: pico -w conf.apf

Scroll down and find

DEVM=”1″

change it to

DEVM=”0″

Save changes, exit and then restart firewall,

At command prompt type: /usr/local/sbin/apf -r

Install BFD (Brute Force Detection)

To install BFD, SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type: cd /root/

At command prompt type: wget http://www.rfxnetworks.com/downloads/bfd-current.tar.gz

At command prompt type: tar -xvzf bfd-current.tar.gz

At command prompt type: cd bfd-0.4

At command prompt type: ./install.sh

After BFD has been installed, you need to edit the configuration file.

At command prompt type: pico /usr/local/bfd/conf.bfd

Under Enable brute force hack attempt alerts:

Find

ALERT_USR=”0″

and change it to

ALERT_USR=”1″

Find

EMAIL_USR=”root”

and change it to

EMAIL_USR=”your@email.com”

Save the changes then exit.

To start BFD

At command prompt type: /usr/local/sbin/bfd -s

Modify LogWatch

Logwatch is a customizable log analysis system. It parses through your system’s logs for a given period of time and creates a report analyzing areas that you specify, in as much detail as you require. Logwatch is already installed on most CPanel servers.

To modify LogWatch, SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type: pico -w /etc/log.d/conf/logwatch.conf

Scroll down to

MailTo = root

and change to

Mailto = your@email.com

Note: Set the e-mail address to an offsite account incase you get hacked.

Now scroll down to

Detail = Low

Change that to Medium, or High…

Detail = 5 or Detail = 10

Note: High will give you more detailed logs with all actions.

Save and exit.
These are measures that can be taken to secure your server, with SSH access.

Udate OS, Apache and CPanel to the latest stable versions.

This can be done from WHM/CPanel.

Restrict SSH Access

To restrict and secure SSH access, bind sshd to a single IP that is different than the main IP to the server, and on a different port than port 22.

SSH into server and login as root.

Note: You can download Putty by Clicking Here. It’s a clean running application that will not require installation on Windows-boxes.

At command prompt type: pico /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Scroll down to the section of the file that looks like this:

Code:

#Port 22
#Protocol 2, 1
#ListenAddress 0.0.0.0
#ListenAddress ::

Uncomment and change

#Port 22

to look like

Port 5678 (choose your own 4 to 5 digit port number (49151 is the highest port number)

Uncomment and change

#Protocol 2, 1

to look like

Protocol 2

Uncomment and change

#ListenAddress 0.0.0.0

to look like

ListenAddress 123.123.123.15 (use one of your own IP Addresses that has been assigned to your server)

Note 1: If you would like to disable direct Root Login, scroll down until you find

#PermitRootLogin yes

and uncomment it and make it look like

PermitRootLogin no

Save by pressing Ctrl o on your keyboard, and then exit by pressing Ctrl x on your keyboard.

Note 2: You can also create a custome nameserver specifically for your new SSH IP address. Just create one called something like ssh.xyz.com or whatever. Be sure to add an A address to your zone file for the new nameserver.

Now restart SSH

At command prompt type: [b]/etc/rc.d/init.d/sshd restart[b]

Exit out of SSH, and then re-login to SSH using the new IP or nameserver, and the new port.

Note: If you should have any problems, just Telnet into your server, fix the problem, then SSH in again. Telnet is a very unsecure protocol, so change your root password after you use it.

Disable Telnet

To disable telnet, SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type: pico -w /etc/xinetd.d/telnet

change disable = no to disable = yes

Save and Exit

At command prompt type: /etc/init.d/xinetd restart

Server e-mail everytime someone logs in as root

To have the server e-mail you everytime someone logs in as root, SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type: pico .bash_profile

Scroll down to the end of the file and add the following line:

echo ‘ALERT – Root Shell Access on:’ `date` `who` | mail -s “Alert: Root Access from `who | awk ‘{print $6}’`” your@email.com

Save and exit.

Set an SSH Legal Message

To an SSH legal message, SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type: pico /etc/motd

Enter your message, save and exit.

Note: I use the following message…

Code:

ALERT! You are entering a secured area! Your IP and login information
have been recorded. System administration has been notified.

This system is restricted to authorized access only. All activities on
this system are recorded and logged. Unauthorized access will be fully
investigated and reported to the appropriate law enforcement agencies.

Now everytime someone logs in as root, they will see this message… go ahead a try it.

Disable Shell Accounts

To disable any shell accounts hosted on your server SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type: locate shell.php

Also check for:

locate irc
locate eggdrop
locate bnc
locate BNC
locate ptlink
locate BitchX
locate guardservices
locate psyBNC
locate .rhosts

These are items inside of WHM/Cpanel that should be changed to secure your server.

Goto Server Setup =>> Tweak Settings

Check the following items…

Under Domains

Prevent users from parking/adding on common internet domains. (ie hotmail.com, aol.com)

Under Mail

Attempt to prevent pop3 connection floods
Default catch-all/default address behavior for new accounts – blackhole

Under System

Use jailshell as the default shell for all new accounts and modified accounts

Goto Server Setup =>> Tweak Security

Enable php open_basedir Protection

Enable mod_userdir Protection

Disabled Compilers for unprivileged users.

Goto Server Setup =>> Manage Wheel Group Users

Remove all users except for root and your main account from the wheel group.

Goto Server Setup =>> Shell Fork Bomb Protection

Enable Shell Fork Bomb/Memory Protection

When setting up Feature Limits for resellers in Resellers =>> Reseller Center, under Privileges always disable Allow Creation of Packages with Shell Access and enable Never allow creation of accounts with shell access; under Root Access disable All Features.

Goto Service Configuration =>> FTP Configuration

Disable Anonymous FTP

Goto Account Functions =>> Manage Shell Access

Disable Shell Access for all users (except yourself)

Goto Mysql =>> MySQL Root Password

Change root password for MySQL

Goto Security and run Quick Security Scan and Scan for Trojan Horses often. The following and similar items are not Trojans:

/sbin/depmod
/sbin/insmod
/sbin/insmod.static
/sbin/modinfo
/sbin/modprobe
/sbin/rmmod
Reply With Quote Multi-Quote This Message
000000000
View Public Profile
Send a private message to 000000000
Visit 000000000’s homepage!
Find all posts by 000000000
Add 000000000 to Your Buddy List
#2 Add to 000000000’s Reputation Report Post
Old 10-02-2004, 08:56 PM
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Registered User

Note: There will be several listings that will be OS/CPanel related. Examples are

/home/cpapachebuild/buildapache/php-4.3.1/ext/ircg
/usr/local/cpanel/etc/sym/eggdrop.sym
/usr/local/cpanel/etc/sym/bnc.sym
/usr/local/cpanel/etc/sym/psyBNC.sym
/usr/local/cpanel/etc/sym/ptlink.sym
/usr/lib/libncurses.so
/usr/lib/libncurses.a
etc.

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